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What is DDx?

DDx is medical shorthand for differential diagnosis, and this is a podcast about how doctors think and learn on the job. It’s hosted by Dr. Raj Bhardwaj and is produced by Figure 1, the global knowledge-sharing platform for medicine used by healthcare professionals around the world to share medical cases. Figure 1 aspires to be a global teaching hospital that delivers lifesaving medical knowledge anywhere and at anytime. The DDx podcast is part of that vision.

About Figure 1

Figure 1’s mission is to empower all healthcare professionals to achieve clinical mastery by learning from one another. We do this through free apps on iOS, Android, and the web, and now with the DDx podcast. With more than 2 million healthcare professionals in our community, Figure 1 is proud to help physicians everywhere share knowledge that saves lives.

About the Host

The host of DDX is Dr. Raj Bhardwaj, an emergency room physician and medical correspondent for CBC Radio.

Featured Doctors

We are deeply grateful for all the physicians who took time to share their clinical knowledge on DDx. In addition to details on the individual episode pages, here is a complete list of their bios, how you can find them on Figure 1, and where you can learn more about their practices.

Sam Ashoo, MD

Dr. Ashoo is a practicing emergency physician in Florida. He is certified by the American Board of Emergency Medicine and is the author of He has over 15 years experience in clinical practice and serves as a clinical assistant professor of emergency medicine at the Florida State University College of Medicine. In addition to teaching, he has a passion for medical administration and patient flow.

Amy Ho, MD

Dr. Ho is an emergency medicine attending physician in Dallas, Texas. She completed her residency at University of Chicago and medical school at University of Texas at Southwestern Medical Center. Her interests include healthcare policy and administration, and she has been a nationally featured speaker and writer on these topics. Learn more about Dr. Ho at

Kathryn Ko, MD, MFA, FAANS

Dr. Ko completed neurosurgery training at Mt. Sinai Medical Center and earned a Master’s of Fine Art in 2012. Her neurosurgery practice and art studio are located in New York City. She is the Artist in Residence at the Living Museum and served as the inaugural Artist in Residence for the American Medical Women’s Association. Her paintings, drawings, cartoons and videos can be viewed on Instagram @doc_ambidexter. You can find more medical cases from Dr. Ko on Figure 1 @doc_ambidexter

Gita Pensa, MD

Dr. Gita Pensa is a Clinical Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine with the Brown Emergency Medicine Residency Program. She has an interest in digital medical education and is the editor of the Brown Emergency Medicine blog, as well as the Associate Director - Education of Brown’s Emergency Digital Health Initiative (EDHI). She is the lead podcaster for the Academic Emergency Medicine journal, and editor of the AEM Early Access podcast. Find her on Twitter at @GitaPensaMD.

John Richards, MD

Dr. John Richards is a Professor of Emergency Medicine at the University of California, Davis Medical Center, a Level I trauma and tertiary care center serving Central and Northern California. His research interests include the treatment of acute toxicity from drugs of abuse, specifically cocaine, amphetamine derivatives such as methamphetamine and MDMA (Ecstasy), cannabis, opioids, and alcoholism. Another aspect of his research is the analysis of medical mythology and outdated treatment guidelines using an evidence-based approach.

Marjorie Stiegler, MD

Dr. Stiegler is a Harvard-trained physician specializing in anesthesiology. Since 2005, her academic focus for research, writing, and speaking has been the application of behavioral psychology to patient safety in medical settings. She has given over 100 presentations across the globe on the role of cognitive bias in medical decision making, expertise, and error. Publications can be found here. Dr. Stiegler also has a professional blog and can be followed on Facebook and Twitter at @drmstiegler. Her book is available on Amazon.

Peter Wolf, MD, PhD

Dr. Wolf is a neurologist and leading epilepsy researcher. As initiator of the European Epilepsy Academy Eurepa, he developed widespread activities for professional education in epilepsy, including the establishment of the distance education system Virepa. His research interests include all clinical and comprehensive care aspects of epilepsy.

Berend Feddersen, MD

Dr. Berend Feddersen is a neurologist at the University of Munich.